The urinary system includes two kidneys, two ureters, the bladder, two sphincter muscles, and the urethra. Waste products from the blood are filtered by the kidneys and added to urine that the kidneys produce where they are dissolved and moved with the urine to the ureters, which are tubes that connect the kidney to the bladder.
Sometimes waste byproducts in the urine do not dissolve completely and develop from microscopic particles or crystals into kidney stones over time. Stones that move down into the ureter, get stuck in the passage, and cause excruciating pain are referred to as ureteric stones. Cancerous (malignant) cells can develop in the lining of the kidney’s tubules and grow into a mass called a tumor, which is known as renal cell carcinoma (RCC), the most common form of kidney cancer. At Academic Urology & Urogynecology of Arizona, we specialize in the field of urogynecology and believe that early detection and diagnosis of these and other female urological problems, such as those listed below are important in providing patients with effective treatment options.